IB History Year II HL History of Europe

This option covers major trends in Europe and the Middle East in the period from the mid 18th century to the end of the 20th century. Europe and the Middle East are geographically close, and their similarities and differences have resulted in periods of cooperation and enmity. Major developments included revolutions; the decline of empires and the establishment of nation states; political, social and economic reforms; and the emergence of dictatorships and the re-emergence of democracy. The entire syllabus for HL History is:
https://ibpublishing.ibo.org/server2/rest/app/tsm.xql?doc=d_3_histx_gui_1501_1_e&part=3&chapter=9 .


IB History Year II HL will meet once per week (Friday morning, period 4). Our goal for the first year is to complete Paper 3 Option 12
Imperial Russia, revolution and the establishment of the Soviet Union (1855–1924)
This section deals with modernization and conservatism in tsarist Russia and the eventual collapse of the tsarist autocracy, as well as the revolutions of 1917, the Civil War and the rule of Lenin. There is a focus on the concepts of change and continuity, with examination and consideration of the social, economic and political factors that brought about change.
  • Alexander II (1855–1881): the extent of reform
  • Policies of Alexander III (1881–1894) and Nicholas II (1894–1917): economic modernization, tsarist repression and the growth of opposition
  • Causes of the 1905 Revolution (including social and economic conditions and the significance of the Russo-Japanese War); consequences of the 1905 Revolution (including Stolypin and the Dumas)
  • The impact of the First World War and the final crisis of autocracy in February/March 1917
  • 1917 Revolutions: February/March Revolution; provisional government and dual power (Soviets); October/November Revolution; Bolshevik Revolution; Lenin and Trotsky
  • Lenin’s Russia/Soviet Union; consolidation of new Soviet state; Civil War; War Communism; New Economic Policy (NEP); terror and coercion; foreign relation

and then cover the material for Paper 3, Option 16:
The Soviet Union and post-Soviet Russia (1924–2000)
This section examines the consolidation of the Soviet state from 1924 and the methods applied to ensure its survival, growth and expansion inside and outside the borders of the Soviet Union. It explores the rise and nature of the rule of Stalin, Khrushchev, Brezhnev and their policies. East–West relations post-1945 in relation to Soviet aims and leadership should also be considered. Finally, the decline and collapse of the Soviet Union should be considered, as well as political and economic developments in post-Soviet Russia.
  • Soviet Union (1924–1941): Stalin and the struggle for power (1924–1929); defeat of Trotsky; Stalin’s policies of collectivization and the Five-Year Plans; government and propaganda under Stalin; the purges and the Great Terror
  • The impact of the Great Patriotic War (1941–1945); post-war Soviet Union (1945–1953): political and economic developments
  • Khrushchev and Brezhnev: domestic policies and foreign relations
  • Transformation of the Soviet Union (1985–1991): Gorbachev (aims, policies and extent of success); political developments and change
  • Collapse of the Soviet Union; post-Soviet Russia to 2000; role and policies of Yeltsin; political and economic developments to 2000

The key issues to understanding Russia revolve around their climate and geography, people and social structure: . Arguably, Winston Churchill was correct; Russia is a 'riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma' for good reason.


The first test is to determine if you know who the power players of Russia were: